Thursday, November 10, 2011

[sehat] Digest Number 16470

Messages In This Digest (25 Messages)

1a.
Re: Bikin mini pesat kantoran donk...kalo PESAT di LN bisa gk?  ;D From: esther siregar
2a.
Re: Ask pediatrician dentist di Jogja From: Dessy Dwi Tantono
3a.
mata minus enam tidak bisa melahirkan normal From: Abdi Yudha
3b.
Re: mata minus enam tidak bisa melahirkan normal From: F.B.Monika
3c.
Re: mata minus enam tidak bisa melahirkan normal From: Dina
3d.
Re: mata minus enam tidak bisa melahirkan normal From: aina
4a.
Re: (OOT banget) Member BSD masuk tangerang yah? From: Bong Mi Yun
4b.
Re: (OOT banget) Member BSD masuk tangerang yah? From: Nizma Armila
4c.
Re: (OOT banget) Member BSD masuk tangerang yah? From: A. Pramana
4d.
Re: (OOT banget) Member BSD masuk tangerang yah? From: memoy.munajah@gmail.com
4e.
Re: (OOT banget) Member BSD masuk tangerang yah? From: Baby Febra
4f.
Re: (OOT banget) Member BSD masuk tangerang yah? From: Dewi satria
4g.
Re: (OOT banget) Member BSD masuk tangerang yah? From: Sisilia
5a.
Re: Hello again From: ummialediyo@gmail.com
6.
[share] Mengenal Penyakit Infeksi From: Laksmi Purwitosari
7a.
Re: [Info] Mengenal Penyakit Infeksi From: Laksmi Purwitosari
7b.
Re: [Info] Mengenal Penyakit Infeksi From: Hilda
7c.
Re: [Info] Mengenal Penyakit Infeksi From: risma
7d.
Re: [Info] Mengenal Penyakit Infeksi From: Sisilia
7e.
Re: [Info] Mengenal Penyakit Infeksi From: Inta
8.
Re: [share] Mengenal Penyakit Infeksi (Hepatitis) From: Laksmi Purwitosari
9a.
Re: [news] Si Miskin Berhadapan dengan Rumah Sakit From: Pamelia Yulianto
9b.
Re: [news] Si Miskin Berhadapan dengan Rumah Sakit From: rully875@gmail.com
10a.
Info dr. Jose R. Batubara From: Bunda Farhan & Athar
10b.
Re: Info dr. Jose R. Batubara From: Yovita Ananta

Messages

1a.

Re: Bikin mini pesat kantoran donk...kalo PESAT di LN bisa gk?  ;D

Posted by: "esther siregar" esther_72gar@hotmail.com   esther_sisca

Thu Nov 10, 2011 4:01 am (PST)




maaf ya makin OOT...
dear para Docs, SPs and Mods,
ngiri banget liat jadwal pesat di Indonesia...by any chance bisa gk ya pesat nya di luar Indonesia? *dg mata berbinar binar ala cartoon dengan tatapan memohon* hehehehehehe

*Esther Siregarlagi buka buka website and liat jadwal pesat...duh jadi ngiri



[Non-text portions of this message have been removed]

2a.

Re: Ask pediatrician dentist di Jogja

Posted by: "Dessy Dwi Tantono" dessy.dwi@gmail.com   denna_7980

Thu Nov 10, 2011 4:10 am (PST)



2011/11/10 <bunda.afnan@gmail.com>:
>
> Mbak Dessy, bisa minta link atau artikel ttg pemakaian fluor scr topikal utk anak >2th? Sbg bahan diskusi dg dentist besok *kmrn diskusi ditelp
> beliau sdh menyebutkan 'karies bs dihentikan'*. Terima kasih byk sblmnya, terima kasih jg info2nya yg sgt bermanfaat.. :)

Salah satu artikel yang menjelaskan tentang aturan penggunaan fluor
secara topikal bisa dibaca di sini:
http://medicinaoral.com/medoralfree01/v14i2/medoralv14i2p103.pdf,
khususnya pada halaman bernomor 105, di bawah bagian "Topical
fluoride".

Berikut ada beberapa link lain yang mungkin bisa menambah informasi
terkait penggunaan fluor buat Mbak Tanti:
- http://www.aapd.org/media/policies_guidelines/g_fluoridetherapy.pdf
- http://www.aapd.org/publications/brochures/fluorosis.asp
- http://www.ada.org/4052.aspx

Semoga membantu.

Dessy - mami Karel(23bln)

3a.

mata minus enam tidak bisa melahirkan normal

Posted by: "Abdi Yudha" regonggo@yahoo.com   regonggo

Thu Nov 10, 2011 4:15 am (PST)



assalaamualaykum,mau tanya saja mungkin pernah di bahas di sini sebelumnya,tapi insyaallah tidak apa ya daripada salah,baru saja saya bertemu teman ba'da maghrib ini,seorang perempuan yang tengah hamil memasuki usia 36 pekan dan memiliki mata minus enam,kata teman tersebut dia tidak bisa melahirkan dengan normal alasan dr.spog nya takut kornea matanya pecah karena minusnya sudah tinggi adakah alasan tersebut benar.mohon infonya terima kasih
wassalaamualaykum....

[Non-text portions of this message have been removed]

3b.

Re: mata minus enam tidak bisa melahirkan normal

Posted by: "F.B.Monika" f_monika_b@yahoo.com   f_monika_b

Thu Nov 10, 2011 4:42 am (PST)



Wa'alaikumsalam Pak/Bu Yudha,

Sebaiknya didiskusikan dengan dsog nya..Berikut ini ada penelitian mengenai wanita minus tinggi yg akan melahirkan semoga bisa jadi bahan diskusi dengan dsog nya.

"There has been concern that patients with high myopia are at a risk of developing retinal tears as they go through a spontaneous delivery. Therefore the aim of the paper was to examine retinal changes in the group of female patients with high myopia before and after delivery.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: Eye examinations were performed before and after delivery in two groups of patients: 42 patients with high myopia and 4 patients with high myopia and retinal detachment surgery in one eye.

RESULTS: There was no progression of retinal changes and development of retinal tears, but in some patients retinal hemorrhages and macular edema were observed.

CONCLUSIONS: High myopia is not the indication for the cesarean section, but the patients should be examined after the delivery."

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/9026570/


F.B.Monika
3c.

Re: mata minus enam tidak bisa melahirkan normal

Posted by: "Dina" dina_herawaty@yahoo.com   mommy_cetta

Thu Nov 10, 2011 4:54 am (PST)



Hanya mau share:
Waktu saya mau melahirkan 2 tahun yg lalu, saya juga sempat mendiskusikan masalah ini dengan dsog saya karena mata saya minus 5,5. beliau menganjurkan saya untuk konsul ke spesialis mata dan minta diperiksa tekanan bola mata.
Dari hasil pemeriksaan, dokter spesialis memberikan rekomendasi bahwa saya bisa melahirkan normal namun setelah melahirkan saya harus kembali kontrol.
Tapi ternyata ketika melahirkan saya harus sc karena plasenta previa, dan saya baru kontol mata setahun kemudian ;p

Maaf kalau tidak membantu.

Dina
Sent from my BlackBerry® smartphone, a gift from my lovely hubby
3d.

Re: mata minus enam tidak bisa melahirkan normal

Posted by: "aina" aina.anwar@yahoo.com   aina.anwar

Thu Nov 10, 2011 5:20 am (PST)



Mba moniq..minus tinggi itu mulai dr minus brp??

merci beaucoup
wassalamu'alaikum wr wb,

aina f.

4a.

Re: (OOT banget) Member BSD masuk tangerang yah?

Posted by: "Bong Mi Yun" bongmiyun@gmail.com   bongmiyun

Thu Nov 10, 2011 4:30 am (PST)



Ngacung........ Sol.

Mi Yun

4b.

Re: (OOT banget) Member BSD masuk tangerang yah?

Posted by: "Nizma Armila" nizma.armila@gmail.com   niu_niz

Thu Nov 10, 2011 4:35 am (PST)



Saya di BSD mbak, delatinos :)

Mummynya AIA, AdamIsyaAlif
http://keluarga-iskandar.blogspot.com
Fb/twttr: @nizmaarmila

4c.

Re: (OOT banget) Member BSD masuk tangerang yah?

Posted by: "A. Pramana" pramana.haba@gmail.com   ajietama

Thu Nov 10, 2011 4:50 am (PST)



Ngacung, saya di melati mas(tetangganya bsd)

On 11/10/11, Nizma Armila <nizma.armila@gmail.com> wrote:
> Saya di BSD mbak, delatinos :)
>
> Mummynya AIA, AdamIsyaAlif
> http://keluarga-iskandar.blogspot.com
> Fb/twttr: @nizmaarmila
>

--
Sent from my mobile device

4d.

Re: (OOT banget) Member BSD masuk tangerang yah?

Posted by: "memoy.munajah@gmail.com" memoy.munajah@gmail.com

Thu Nov 10, 2011 5:15 am (PST)



Saya di sektor 1.6..

-ibunya Raka (13d)-
Sent from my BlackBerry®
powered by Sinyal Kuat INDOSAT

-----Original Message-----
From: "A. Pramana" <pramana.haba@gmail.com>
Sender: sehat@yahoogroups.com
Date: Thu, 10 Nov 2011 19:50:53
To: <sehat@yahoogroups.com>
Reply-To: sehat@yahoogroups.com
Subject: Re: [sehat] (OOT banget) Member BSD masuk tangerang yah?

Ngacung, saya di melati mas(tetangganya bsd)

On 11/10/11, Nizma Armila <nizma.armila@gmail.com> wrote:
> Saya di BSD mbak, delatinos :)
>
> Mummynya AIA, AdamIsyaAlif
> http://keluarga-iskandar.blogspot.com
> Fb/twttr: @nizmaarmila
>

--
Sent from my mobile device


[Non-text portions of this message have been removed]

4e.

Re: (OOT banget) Member BSD masuk tangerang yah?

Posted by: "Baby Febra" babynajla@gmail.com

Thu Nov 10, 2011 5:24 am (PST)



Saya di Giri Loka 1 mba, warga BSD juga :)

Baby
Mamanya Neng Najla (4d to 23m)
Šent from ♏ỳ βlªςќвεrrў™
4f.

Re: (OOT banget) Member BSD masuk tangerang yah?

Posted by: "Dewi satria" dewi_rachma_sjafrudin@yahoo.com   dewi_rachma_sjafrudin

Thu Nov 10, 2011 5:27 am (PST)



Kalo bintaro masuk jg ngga mbk?! Pengen ikutan dongggg.... Hehehhhe

Sent from my GwenBerry®
powered by Sinyal Kuat INDOSAT
4g.

Re: (OOT banget) Member BSD masuk tangerang yah?

Posted by: "Sisilia" sisil.mahadaya@gmail.com   caeciliapudjiastuti

Thu Nov 10, 2011 5:31 am (PST)



Teman2... Pda japri aja kali ya... Soale yakin seyakin2nya, member tangerang ada buanyak hehehe... Sebelum tambah banyak yg ngacung di jalum

Ikut seneng kalo bisa pada saling ketemu dan membuat kelompok yg saling mendukung dan jadi tempat saling berbagi, sehingga makin banyak orang bisa diajak RUM.

Bener nggak temen2 di ciledug? Hehehe...

Met pada kenal2an yaa

Sisil
*serpong utara
@sisilmahadaya

5a.

Re: Hello again

Posted by: "ummialediyo@gmail.com" ummialediyo@gmail.com

Thu Nov 10, 2011 4:34 am (PST)



Pesat bekasi di islamic center mbak mulia. Tanggal 13nop. Berminat ikut ? Saya ada 2 seat. Mau gantiin punya saya ? :)
Powered by Telkomsel BlackBerry®

-----Original Message-----
From: "Mulia" <m_u_l_i_a@yahoo.com>
Sender: sehat@yahoogroups.com
Date: Thu, 10 Nov 2011 11:33:34
To: <sehat@yahoogroups.com>
Reply-To: sehat@yahoogroups.com
Subject: [sehat] Re: Hello again

Mba putri,

maaf klo tanya2 lg...pesat di bekasi itu tempatnya dimana ya? lalu tgl 13 des atau 13 november y mba tepatnya? krn mba blg di minggu ini tp tgl nya 13 des ..trmksh mba..

_ Mulia_

--- In sehat@yahoogroups.com, Putri Suhendro <poet_poetrie@...> wrote:
>
> pesat bekasi sesi 3 (commond problems) hari minggu ini, tgl 13 des 2011
>
> monggo ......
>
>
> PUTRI
>
>
>
> ________________________________
>
> [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
>




[Non-text portions of this message have been removed]

6.

[share] Mengenal Penyakit Infeksi

Posted by: "Laksmi Purwitosari" laksmipurwitosari@yahoo.com   laksmipurwitosari

Thu Nov 10, 2011 4:37 am (PST)



Dear all,

Ada artikel yang lumayan lengkap untuk membekali diri, menghadapi semakin banyaknya penyakit infeksi, sehingga kita dengan jelas memahami cara penyebarannya dan pencegahan penyebarannya.
http://scienceeducation.nih.gov/supplements/nih1/diseases/guide/understanding2.htm

Understanding Emerging and Re-emerging Infectious Diseases

An infectious disease is a disease that is caused by the invasion of a host by agents whose activities harm the host's tissues (that is, they cause disease) and can be transmitted to other individuals (that is, they are infectious).

Nature of Infectious Diseases
Microorganisms that are capable of causing disease are called pathogens. Although microorganisms that cause disease often receive the most attention, it is important to note that most microorganisms do not cause disease. In fact, many probably provide some protection against harmful microorganisms because they effectively compete with the harmful organisms for resources, preventing them from growing.

A true pathogen is an infectious agent that causes disease in virtually any susceptible host. Opportunistic pathogens are potentially infectious agents that rarely cause disease in individuals with healthy immune systems. Diseases caused by opportunistic pathogens typically are found among groups such as the elderly (whose immune systems are failing), cancer patients receiving chemotherapy (which adversely affects the immune system), or people who have AIDS or are HIV-positive. An important clue to understanding the effect of HIV on the immune system was the observation of a rare type of pneumonia among young men caused by Pneumocystis carinii, an organism that causes disease only among the immunosuppressed.

The terms "infection" and "disease" are not synonymous. An infection results when a pathogen invades and begins growing within a host. Disease results only if and when, as a consequence of the invasion and growth of a pathogen, tissue function is impaired. Our bodies have defense mechanisms to prevent infection and, should those mechanisms fail, to prevent disease after infection occurs. Some infectious agents are easily transmitted (that is, they are very contagious), but they are not very likely to cause disease (that is, they are not very virulent). The polio virus is an example: It probably infects most people who contact it, but only about 5 to 10 percent of those infected actually develop clinical disease. Other infectious agents are very virulent, but not terribly contagious. The terror surrounding Ebola hemorrhagic fever is based on the virulence of the virus (50 to 90 percent fatality rate among those infected); however, the virus itself is not
transmitted easily by casual contact. The most worrisome infectious agents are those that are both very contagious and very virulent.

In order to cause disease, pathogens must be able to enter the host body, adhere to specific host cells, invade and colonize host tissues, and inflict damage on those tissues. Entrance to the host typically occurs through natural orifices such as the mouth, eyes, or genital openings, or through wounds that breach the skin barrier to pathogens. Although some pathogens can grow at the initial entry site, most must invade areas of the body where they are not typically found. They do this by attaching to specific host cells. Some pathogens then multiply between host cells or within body fluids, while others such as viruses and some bacterial species enter the host cells and grow there. Although the growth of pathogens may be enough to cause tissue damage in some cases, damage is usually due to the production of toxins or destructive enzymes by the pathogen. For example, Corynebacterium diphtheriae, the bacterium that causes diphtheria, grows only on nasal
and throat surfaces. However, the toxin it produces is distributed to other tissues by the circulatory system, damaging heart, liver, and nerve tissues. Streptococcus pyogenes, the infectious agent associated with several diseases including strep throat and "flesh-eating disease," produces several enzymes that break down barriers between epithelial cells and remove fibrin clots, helping the bacteria invade tissues.

Microbes That Cause Infectious Diseases
There are five major types of infectious agents: bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa, and helminths. In addition, a new class of infectious agents, the prions, has recently been recognized. A brief review of the general characteristics of each of these agents and examples of some diseases they cause follows.

Bacteria
Bacteria are unicellular prokaryotic organisms; that is, they have no organized internal membranous structures such as nuclei, mitochondria, or lysosomes. Their genomes are circular, double-stranded DNA that is associated with much less protein than eukaryotic genomes'. Most bacteria reproduce by growing and dividing into two cells in a process known as binary fission. Despite these commonalities that group them together in the Kingdom Monera, there is a wide range of diversity among the bacteria.

There is a variety of morphologies among bacteria, but three of the most common are bacillus (rodshaped), coccus (spherical), and spirillum (helical rods). The energy sources for bacteria also vary. Some bacteria are photosynthetic and obtain their energy directly from the sun. Others oxidize inorganic compounds to supply their energy needs. Still other bacteria generate energy by breaking down organic compounds such as amino acids and sugars in a respiratory process. Some bacteria require oxygen (aerobes), while others are unable to tolerate it (anaerobes). Some bacteria can grow either with or without oxygen (facultative anaerobes).

Bacteria are frequently divided into two broad classes based on their cell wall structures, which influences their Gram stain reaction. Gram-negative bacteria appear pink after the staining procedure. Familiar pathogenic gram-negative organisms are Salmonella typhi, which causes typhoid fever, and Yersinia pestis, which causes plague. Gram-positive bacteria appear purple after the Gram stain procedure. Examples of pathogenic gram-positive bacteria are Staphylococcus aureus, which causes skin, respiratory, and wound infections, and Clostridium tetani, which produces a toxin that can be lethal for humans.

Viruses
Microbiologists have found viruses that infect all organisms, from plants and animals to fungi and bacteria. Viruses, however, are not organisms themselves because, apart from a host cell, they have no metabolism and cannot reproduce. A virus particle is composed of a viral genome of nucleic acid that is surrounded by a protein coat called a capsid. In addition, many viruses that infect animals are surrounded by an outer lipid envelope, which they acquire from the host cell membrane as they leave the cell. Unlike organisms, in which the genetic material is always double-stranded DNA, viral genomes may be double- or single-stranded DNA (a DNA virus), or double- or single-stranded RNA (an RNA virus).

In the general process of infection and replication by a DNA virus, a viral particle first attaches to a specific host cell via protein receptors on its outer envelope, or capsid. The viral genome is then inserted into the host cell, where it uses host cell enzymes to replicate its DNA, transcribe the DNA to make messenger RNA, and translate the messenger RNA into viral proteins. The replicated DNA and viral proteins are then assembled into complete viral particles, and the new viruses are released from the host cell. In some cases, virus-derived enzymes destroy the host cell membranes, killing the cell and releasing the new virus particles. In other cases, new virus particles exit the cell by a budding process, weakening but not destroying the cell.

In the case of some RNA viruses, the genetic material can be used directly as messenger RNA to produce viral proteins, including a special viral RNA polymerase that copies the RNA template to produce the genetic material for new viral particles. Other RNA viruses, called retroviruses, use a unique enzyme called reverse transcriptase to copy the RNA genome into DNA. This DNA then integrates itself into the host cell genome. These viruses frequently exhibit long latent periods in which their genomes are faithfully copied and distributed to progeny cells each time the cell divides. The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which causes AIDS, is a familiar example of a retrovirus.

Just like other infectious agents, viruses cause disease by disrupting normal cell function. They do this in a variety of ways. Some viruses make repressor proteins that stop the synthesis of the host cell's proteins, RNA, and DNA. Viral activity may weaken cell membranes and lysosomal membranes, leading to cell autolysis. Some viral proteins are toxic to cells, and the body's immune defenses also may kill virus-infected cells.

Viruses are classified using a variety of criteria, including shape, size, and type of genome. Among the DNA viruses are the herpes viruses that cause chicken pox, cold sores, and painful genital lesions, and the poxvirus that causes smallpox. Significant RNA viruses that cause human disease include rhinoviruses that cause most common colds; myxoviruses and paramyxoviruses that cause influenza, measles, and mumps; rotaviruses that cause gastroenteritis; and the retroviruses that cause AIDS and several types of cancer.

Fungi
Fungi are eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that have rigid cellulose- or chitin-based cell walls and reproduce primarily by forming spores. Most fungi are multicellular, although some, such as yeasts, are unicellular. Together with bacteria, fungi fulfill the indispensable role of decomposers in the environment. Many fungi also infect plants and animals. Examples of diseases caused by fungi are ringworm and histoplasmosis (a mild to severe lung infection transmitted by bat or bird droppings). Yeasts of theCandida genus are opportunistic pathogens that may cause diseases such as vaginal yeast infections and thrush (a throat infection) among people who are immunocompromised or undergoing antibiotic therapy. Antibiotics reduce the bacterial population normally present in the throat and vagina, allowing the yeast to grow unchecked.

Protozoa
Protozoa are unicellular, heterotrophic eukaryotes that include the familiar amoeba and paramecium. Because protozoa do not have cell walls, they are capable of a variety of rapid and flexible movements. Protozoa can be acquired through contaminated food or water or by the bite of an infected arthropod such as a mosquito. Diarrheal disease in the United States can be caused by two common protozoan parasites, Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium parvum. Malaria, a tropical illness that causes 300 million to 500 million cases of disease annually, is caused by several species of the protozoan Plasmodium.

Helminths
Helminths are simple, invertebrate animals, some of which are infectious parasites. They are multicellular and have differentiated tissues. Because they are animals, their physiology is similar in some ways to ours. This makes parasitic helminth infections difficult to treat because drugs that kill helminths are frequently very toxic to human cells.

Many helminths have complex reproductive cycles that include multiple stages, many or all of which require a host. Schistosoma, a flatworm, causes the mild disease swimmer's itch in the United States; another species of Schistosoma causes the much more serious disease schistosomiasis, which is endemic in Africa and Latin America. Schistosome eggs hatch in freshwater, and the resulting larvae infect snails. When the snails shed these larvae, the larvae attach to and penetrate human skin. They feed, grow, and mate in the human bloodstream; the damage to human tissues caused by the accumulating schistosome eggs with their sharp spines results in disease symptoms including diarrhea and abdominal pain. Liver and spleen involvement are common. Another disease due to a helminth is trichinosis, caused by the roundworm Trichinella spiralis. This infectious agent is typically ingested in improperly cooked pork from infected pigs. Early disease symptoms include
vomiting, diarrhea, and fever; later symptoms include intense muscle pain because the larvae grow and mature in those tissues. Fatal cases often show congestive heart failure and respiratory paralysis.

Prions
During the past two decades, evidence has linked some degenerative disorders of the central nervous system to infectious particles that consist only of protein. These "proteinaceous infectious particles" have been named prions (pree-ons). The known prion diseases include Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (in humans), scrapie (in sheep), and bovine spongiform encephalopathy ("mad cow disease" in cattle); all known prion diseases frequently result in brain tissue that is riddled with holes. While some prion diseases are inherited, others are apparently due to infection by eating infected tissue or inadvertently through medical procedures such as tissue transplants.

Occurrence of Infectious Diseases
Epidemiology
Epidemiology is the study of the occurrence of disease in populations. Epidemiologists are concerned not only with infectious diseases, but also with noninfectious diseases such as cancer and atherosclerosis, and with environmental diseases such as lead poisoning. These professionals work to prevent or minimize the impact of diseases in the population. Their work may include such activities as identifying unusually high incidences of a particular disease, determining the effectiveness of a vaccine, and calculating the cost effectiveness of various means of controlling disease transmission. Occasionally, epidemiologists act as "detectives" who track down the cause of a "new" disease, determine its reservoir and mode of transmission, and help organize various health care workers to bring the disease under control.

Disease reservoirs
The reservoir for a disease is the site where the infectious agent survives. For example, humans are the reservoir for the measles virus because it does not infect other organisms.

Animals often serve as reservoirs for diseases that infect humans. The major reservoir for Yersinia pestis, the bacteria that causes plague, is wild rodents. There are also nonliving reservoirs. Soil is the reservoir for many pathogenic fungi as well as some pathogenic bacteria such as Clostridium tetani, which causes tetanus.

Modes of transmission
Infectious agents may be transmitted through either direct or indirect contact. Direct contact occurs when an individual is infected by contact with the reservoir, for example, by touching an infected person, ingesting infected meat, or being bitten by an infected animal or insect. Transmission by direct contact also includes inhaling the infectious agent in droplets emitted by sneezing or coughing and contracting the infectious agent through intimate sexual contact. Some diseases that are transmitted primarily by direct contact with the reservoir include ringworm, AIDS, trichinosis, influenza, rabies, and malaria.

Indirect contact occurs when a pathogen can withstand the environment outside its host for a long period of time before infecting another individual. Inanimate objects that are contaminated by direct contact with the reservoir (for example, a tissue used to wipe the nose of an individual who has a cold or a toy that has been handled by a sick child) may be the indirect contact for a susceptible individual. Ingesting food and beverages contaminated by contact with a disease reservoir is another example of disease transmission by indirect contact. The fecal-oral route of transmission, in which sewage-contaminated water is used for drinking, washing, or preparing foods, is a significant form of indirect transmission, especially for gastrointestinal diseases such as cholera, rotavirus infection, cryptosporidiosis, and giardiasis.

These modes of transmission are all examples of horizontal transmission because the infectious agent is passed from person to person in a group. Some diseases also are transmitted vertically; that is, they are transmitted from parent to child during the processes of reproduction (through sperm or egg cells), fetal development, or birth. Diseases in which vertical transmission occurs include AIDS and herpes encephalitis (which occurs when an infant contracts the herpes simplex type II virus during vaginal birth).

Role of Research in Prevention

Figure 4 - The black arrows illustrate a generalized infectious cycle; the shaded arrows indicate points where infectious diseases can be prevented. (1) A host is infected by the reservoir or a vector for the pathogen. This individual may infect (2) other hosts in a population or (3) new vectors. (4) The pathogen also may cycle between the vector and a reservoir. D
Infectious diseases can be prevented at a variety of points, depending on the infectious cycle for the particular disease (Figure 4). Basic research, such as that sponsored by NIH, reveals the specific infectious cycle and details regarding the activities of the pathogen that cause disease (for example, the particular cells, if any, that are attacked, and the toxins produced by th e pathogen that damage host tissues).

Understanding the infectious cycle is critical in order to identify accessible targets for control strategies (Figure 4). For example, direct person-to-person transmission may be inhibited by proper hygiene and sanitary conditions as well as education. Vector-borne diseases may be prevented by control measures that either kill the vector or prevent its contact with humans. Infection by a pathogen or development of a pathogen within a host may be prevented by vaccination. Finally, drugs may be used to prevent infection or suppress the disease process.

Understanding Emerging and Re-emerging Infectious Diseases (continued)

In some cases, the tools, including drugs, vaccines, and vector-control methods, are already available to deal with these diseases. For other diseases, the methods for control are inadequate, undeveloped, or nonexistent. Scientists are trying to develop the new tools needed to banish these scourges of mankind. This requires basic research into the life processes of the pathogen and its interaction with the host in order to identify points within the life cycle where the pathogen is vulnerable to intervention, translational research to develop new tools (such as vaccines or antimicrobial drugs), and clinical research to test the safety and efficacy of these new tools.

Host Defenses Against Infectious Diseases
The human body has several general mechanisms for preventing infectious diseases. Some of these mechanisms are referred to as nonspecific defenses because they operate against a wide range of pathogens. Other mechanisms are referred to as specific defenses because they target particular pathogens and pathogen-infected cells.

Nonspecific mechanisms
Nonspecific mechanisms are the body's primary defense against disease. These mechanisms include anatomical barriers to invading pathogens, physiological deterrents to pathogens, and the presence of normal flora. An example of an anatomical barrier is the nasal opening to the respiratory system. This natural opening is a long, convoluted passage covered by mucous membranes that trap airborne particles and prevent most of them from reaching the lungs. Other anatomical barriers are the skull and vertebral column, which protect the central nervous system &#8212; few pathogens are able to penetrate bone. The skin also is a major anatomical barrier to microorganisms. The surface layer of dead, hardened cells is relatively dry, and skin secretions make the surface somewhat acidic. When sweat evaporates, salt is left behind on the skin. All of these conditions (low moisture, low pH, and high salinity) prevent most microorganisms from growing and multiplying on
the skin. The major medical challenge in treating burn patients is preventing and treating infections that result because of the absence of skin that ordinarily would prevent invasion of microorganisms.

Natural openings also are protected by a variety of physiological deterrents. For example, tears continually flush debris from the eyes. Vaginal secretions are acidic, a hostile environment that discourages the growth of many pathogens. The eye, mouth, and nasal openings are protected by tears, saliva, or nasal secretions that contain lysozyme, an enzyme that breaks down bacterial cell walls. Blood, sweat, and some tissue fluids contain lysozyme as well.

In addition to lysozyme, the blood has many elements that defend the body from disease-causing organisms. The white blood cells include several types of phagocytic cells that detect, track, engulf, and kill invading bacteria and viruses, as well as infected host cells and other debris. These phagocytic cells are part of the nonspecific immune system. Blood plasma also includes clotting factors that initiate a clot at the injury site, preventing pathogens from invading the body further. Finally, the complement proteins in the blood participate in a cascade of molecular events that result in inflammation, the release of molecules that stimulate phagocytic cells, and the formation of a complex of proteins that binds to the surface of bacterial or infected host cells and lyses those cells.

The inflammatory response is another nonspecific defense mechanism that helps prevent infectious agents from spreading in the body. Inflammation involves swelling, reddening, elevated temperature, and pain. Unfortunately, inflammation itself frequently causes tissue damage and, in severe cases, even death.

Finally, the protective role of the "normal flora" of microorganisms present on and in the body should not be overlooked. These organisms survive and grow on the skin and in the mouth, gastrointestinal tract, and other areas of the body, but do not cause disease because their growth is kept under control by the host's defense mechanisms and by the presence of other microorganisms. These organisms protect the host by successfully competing with disease-causing organisms, preventing the latter from invading host tissues. When the growth of the normal flora is suppressed (for example, due to antibiotic treatment), other "opportunistic" agents that normally do not grow in or on the body may be able to infect and cause disease.

Specific mechanisms of host resistance
When these nonspecific mechanisms fail, the body initiates a second, specific line of defense. This specific immune response enables the body to target particular pathogens and pathogen-infected cells for destruction. It depends on specialized white blood cells called lymphocytes and includes T-cells (produced from lymphocytes that matured in the thymus gland) and B-cells (produced from lymphocytes that matured in the bone marrow).

The two complementary components of the specific immune response are the cell-mediated response and the antibody-mediated response (Figure 5). The cell-mediated response involves T-cells and is responsible for directly destroying body cells that are infected with a virus or have become cancerous, or for activating other immune cells to be more efficient microbe killers. The antibody-mediated response involves both T-cells and B-cells and is critical for the destruction of invading pathogens as well as the elimination of toxins.

Both the cell-mediated and antibody-mediated responses are initiated after a particular type of phagocytic cell, a macrophage, engulfs a pathogen. Macrophages digest the pathogen and then display antigens from the pathogen on their surface. Antigens are specific molecules, such as the proteins on the surface of pathogens, that elicit an immune response. This display helps the macrophages stimulate specific helper T-cells to release signal molecules called lymphokines. The lymphokines, in turn, stimulate the cell-mediated and antibody-mediated responses.

The cell-mediated response occurs when the lymphokines released from the helper T-cells stimulate other cell types to participate in the immune response. Lymphokine-stimulated killer T-cells attach to the pathogen-infected cells and destroy them, whereas lymphokine-activated phagocytic cells produce more toxic molecules that can kill the pathogen directly.

The antibody-mediated response occurs when the lymphokines activate specific B-cells to produce antibodies (proteins that specifically recognize and bind to antigens). These antibodies attach to antigens on the surface of the pathogens and signal attack by phagocytic cells and complement system. Other B-cells go on to become memory B-cells, which respond quickly by producing more antibodies upon subsequent infection.

Immunity
When a host encounters an antigen that triggers a specific immune response for the second or later time, the memory lymphocytes recognize it and quickly begin growing and dividing, as well as producing high levels of lymphokines and antibodies. Because memory cells are present, this response happens much more quickly than in the initial encounter with the antigen. This rapid response explains why hosts are immune to developing many diseases a second time: The immune response occurs so quickly in a second encounter with the pathogen that the pathogen does not have enough time to reproduce to levels that result in disease before the host's body has destroyed it. The memory response also explains the effectiveness of vaccination for preventing even the first occurrence of many diseases.

Figure 5 - This diagram provides an overview of specific immunity. D
Vaccination
A vaccine is either a killed or weakened (attenuated) strain of a particular pathogen, or a solution containing critical antigens from the pathogen. The body's immune system will respond to these vaccines as if they contain the actual pathogen, even though the vaccine is not capable of causing the disease. As a result of the specific immune response, memory lymphocytes will be present that respond rapidly when the actual pathogen is encountered. The resulting rapid activation of immune cells prevents disease.

Currently new types of vaccines, the DNA vaccines, are in early stage trials. These vaccines contain genes that encode proteins from pathogens. When these genes are inserted into host cells and are expressed in the form of pathogen proteins, an immune reaction may result.

The ultimate effectiveness of vaccinationâ€"eradication of the infectious agentâ€"has been achieved only for smallpox. The World Health Organization has identified the polio and measles viruses among the next targets for global eradication.

For a variety of reasons, many diseases are not easily prevented by vaccination. Antibody response is generally the simplest to induce by vaccination, but some pathogens have ways to evade the immune response. Intracellular pathogens (such as viruses and some bacterial and protozoan pathogens) are not directly affected by antibodies because antibodies cannot pass inside cells. Moreover, during the disease process, some pathogens acquire an external coat composed of host-derived material while others disguise themselves by making molecules that resemble host molecules. Thus, the host's immune system does not identify them as foreign invaders. Still other pathogens mutate quickly, producing variants of their antigens that are not recognized by the host's immune system, even though the host survived a previous encounter with that pathogen. Cold and influenza viruses are examples of rapidly mutating pathogens. Scientists are working to improve vaccines
against these pathogens.

Public Health Measures to Prevent Infectious Diseases
Developed countries have regulations that help protect the general public from infectious diseases. Public health measures typically involve eliminating the pathogen from its reservoir or from its route of transmission. Those measures include ensuring a safe water supply, effectively managing sewage treatment and disposal, and initiating food safety, animal control, and vaccination programs.

Safewater
Many pathogens that cause gastrointestinal diseases (for example, those that cause cholera and typhoid fever) are transmitted via water. Travelers to developing countries are frequently advised to be immunized against these diseases. This is generally unnecessary in the United States and other developed countries because the water used for washing, drinking, and preparing food is purified before it goes into homes. Purification methods include settling, filtration, and chlorination. The water for homes that use well water or springs is usually safe if guidelines about distance from sewage disposal facilities are followed; however, this water should be checked periodically. When breakdowns in a purification system occur, or when a system is overwhelmed (for example, due to unusual flooding), drinking water may not be safe and should be boiled or treated with chlorine before it is ingested.

Because gastrointestinal pathogens typically leave the body in the feces, public water must be guarded against contamination from sewage. Municipal water is usually tested for the presence of coliform organisms (nonpathogenic microorganisms that are part of the normal flora of the gastrointestinal tract) as indicators of sewage contamination. This procedure is necessary because when the water contains pathogens and is potentially dangerous, the pathogenic organisms are usually present in such small numbers that they are hard to detect.

Sewage treatment and disposal
Sewage includes wash water, water from toilets, and storm run-off. These fluids may carry the pathogens for many waterborne diseases, including giardiasis and hepatitis A; therefore, to ensure public safety the U.S. government (and the governments of other developed countries) requires that sewage be treated to eliminate pathogens. The minimal acceptable level of treatment involves collection and sedimentation of sewage waters, separating solid matter (sludge) from the liquid (effluent) portion of sewage. The effluent is chlorinated to kill pathogens before it is released to rivers or lakes. The sludge is burned or dumped.

More advanced methods of treatment use a secondary treatment following this primary treatment. The effluent is transferred to tanks containing a population of microorganisms that decompose more than 90 percent of the organic wastes and eliminate pathogens by competition (this is another example of the important role of microorganisms in preventing disease). The resulting effluent is chlorinated before it is released to the environment. Some sewage treatment plants include a tertiary treatment that involves additional chemicals that also eliminate pathogens.

Food safety programs
The United States has many standards, inspection plans, and regulations about food preparation, handling, and distribution. Meat-packing facilities are inspected regularly to detect and eliminate diseased animals, ensure that standards for processes such as meat cutting and refrigeration are observed, and detect residues from pesticides and antibiotics as well as contamination by bacteria and other parasites. Restaurants and supermarkets are similarly inspected. Milk is pasteurized and dated for sale and is analyzed periodically for contamination. Industry standards for canning and preserving foods are maintained through periodic quality control checks and, if contamination is found in representatives of any batches, public health officials recall the entire batch and alert the public through the media.

Animal-control programs
Animals are carriers of many diseases that also affect humans. Inspecting domestic herd animals for tuberculosis (due to the bacterium Mycobacterium bovis) and brucellosis (a disease that causes spontaneous abortion in domestic herd animals and abscesses of the liver, spleen, bone marrow, and lymph nodes in humans) has helped eliminate the threat of passing the pathogens for those diseases to humans in contaminated milk and meat. Before their pets can be licensed, dog owners must show proof of rabies vaccination. Because most cases of rabies among people in the United States are due to bites from wild and stray animals, health officials are mandated to impound and destroy these animals. Many diseases, including bubonic plague, are spread by rodents, and rat control, especially in urban areas, is a major component of public health efforts. Insects also transmit many diseases (a notable example is malaria). The spread of insect-borne diseases can be
controlled by eliminating breeding areas for insects (for example, draining areas where stagnant water collects) and using pesticides. Many imported animals must be tested for specific diseases to prevent the introduction of those diseases into the country.

Most states now require that parents or guardians show proof of vaccination before their children can be enrolled in day-care facilities or public schools, although some states allow certain exemptions, including exemptions based on religious beliefs. The value of immunization for an individual's health is obvious; however, it is also important for public health. If a certain proportion of a population (called the threshold proportion) is immune to a disease, the pathogen that causes that disease will be unable to reproduce itself at a high enough level to maintain itself in the population. This is because once the infected host recovers or dies, there will not be enough new, susceptible hosts for the pathogen to infect. Eventually, the pathogen cannot spread any further and could be eliminated from the population. Even if elimination of the pathogen does not occur, there will be relatively few cases of the related disease and epidemics of the disease in
the population will be avoided. This phenomenon is called herd immunity.Vaccination programs
The threshold proportion varies depending on the disease and other conditions in the relevant population. Vaccination programs led by public health officials aim to achieve the immunization of at least the threshold number of individuals for the population.

Semoga Bermanfaat

Laksmi Purwitosari

[Non-text portions of this message have been removed]

7a.

Re: [Info] Mengenal Penyakit Infeksi

Posted by: "Laksmi Purwitosari" laksmipurwitosari@yahoo.com   laksmipurwitosari

Thu Nov 10, 2011 4:40 am (PST)



Dear all,

Bisa dibaca, pedoman mencuci tangan, sepele, tapi manfaatnya luar biasa

http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/hand-washing/HQ00407

Hand-washing: Do's and don'ts
Hand-washing is an easy way to prevent infection. Understand when to wash your hands, how to properly use hand sanitizer and how to get your children into the habit.

By Mayo Clinic staff
Frequent hand-washing is one of the best ways to avoid getting sick and spreading illness. Hand-washing requires only soap and water or an alcohol-based hand sanitizer â€" a cleanser that doesn't require water. Find out when and how to wash your hands properly.

When to wash your hands

As you touch people, surfaces and objects throughout the day, you accumulate germs on your hands. In turn, you can infect yourself with these germs by touching your eyes, nose or mouth. Although it's impossible to keep your hands germ-free, washing your hands frequently can help limit the transfer of bacteria, viruses and other microbes.

Always wash your hands before:

Preparing food or eating
Treating wounds, giving medicine, or caring for a sick or injured person
Inserting or removing contact lenses
Always wash your hands after:

Preparing food, especially raw meat or poultry
Using the toilet or changing a diaper
Touching an animal or animal toys, leashes, or waste
Blowing your nose, coughing or sneezing into your hands
Treating wounds or caring for a sick or injured person
Handling garbage, household or garden chemicals, or anything that could be contaminated â€" such as a cleaning cloth or soiled shoes
In addition, wash your hands whenever they look dirty.

How to wash your hands

It's generally best to wash your hands with soap and water. Follow these simple steps:

Wet your hands with running water.
Apply liquid, bar or powder soap.
Lather well.
Rub your hands vigorously for at least 20 seconds. Remember to scrub all surfaces, including the backs of your hands, wrists, between your fingers and under your fingernails.
Rinse well.
Dry your hands with a clean or disposable towel or air dryer.
If possible, use your towel to turn off the faucet.
Keep in mind that antibacterial soap is no more effective at killing germs than is regular soap. Using antibacterial soap may even lead to the development of bacteria that are resistant to the product's antimicrobial agents â€" making it harder to kill these germs in the future.

Hand-washing: Do's and don'ts

How to use an alcohol-based hand sanitizer

Alcohol-based hand sanitizers, which don't require water, are an acceptable alternative when soap and water aren't available. If you choose to use a hand sanitizer, make sure the product contains at least 60 percent alcohol. Then follow these simple steps:

Apply enough of the product to the palm of your hand to wet your hands completely.
Rub your hands together, covering all surfaces, until your hands are dry.
Antimicrobial wipes or towelettes are another effective option. Again, look for a product that contains a high percentage of alcohol. If your hands are visibly dirty, wash with soap and water.

Kids need clean hands, too

Help children stay healthy by encouraging them to wash their hands properly and frequently. Wash your hands with your child to show him or her how it's done. To prevent rushing, suggest washing hands for as long as it takes to sing the "Happy Birthday" song twice. You might place hand-washing reminders at your child's eye level, such as a chart by the bathroom sink that can be marked every time your child washes his or her hands. If your child can't reach the sink on his or her own, keep a step stool handy.

Alcohol-based hand sanitizers are OK for children and adolescents, too, especially when soap and water aren't available. Remind your child to make sure the sanitizer completely dries before he or she touches anything. Store the container safely away after use.

Hand-washing is especially important for children in child care settings. Young children cared for in groups outside the home are at greater risk of respiratory and gastrointestinal diseases, which can easily spread to family members and other contacts. Be sure your child care provider promotes frequent hand-washing or use of alcohol-based hand sanitizers. Ask whether the children are required to wash their hands several times a day â€" not just before meals. Note, too, whether diapering areas are cleaned after each use and whether eating and diapering areas are well separated.

A simple way to stay healthy

Hand-washing doesn't take much time or effort, but it offers great rewards in terms of preventing illness. Adopting this simple habit can play a major role in protecting your health.

Salam Sehat,
Laksmi Purwitosari

[Non-text portions of this message have been removed]

7b.

Re: [Info] Mengenal Penyakit Infeksi

Posted by: "Hilda" hilda.iriany@gmail.com   h_iriany

Thu Nov 10, 2011 4:46 am (PST)



Dr Laksmi, makasih artikelnya.
Mencerahkan sekali dan saya baru ingat bahwa kebiasaan mencuci tangan ini belum maksimal saya ajarkan ke anak saya :(

Ada yang mau saya garisbawahi:
Using antibacterial soap may even lead to the development of bacteria that are resistant to the product's antimicrobial agents — making it harder to kill these germs in the future.
------- banyaknya produk2 pembersih dgn klaim antibakteri berarti malah berkontribusi pd makin banyaknya bakteri yg resisten ya? Ah sedih sekali. Produk begini kan banyak banget di pasaran :((



-hilda-
7c.

Re: [Info] Mengenal Penyakit Infeksi

Posted by: "risma" bunda_fazil@yahoo.com   bunda_fazil

Thu Nov 10, 2011 4:51 am (PST)




Dok, tfs ya...
Sama kek hilda, urusan cuci tangan yg sepele begini blom maksimal dipraktekkan ama anak2 dan saya. Hehehe....

Hil,
Justru sekarang susah cari produk yg gak mengklaim anti bakteri.
Miris ya...

-risma-

7d.

Re: [Info] Mengenal Penyakit Infeksi

Posted by: "Sisilia" sisil.mahadaya@gmail.com   caeciliapudjiastuti

Thu Nov 10, 2011 5:24 am (PST)



Jd inget mau sharing,

Sy ajarin Damai cuci tangan sambil nyanyi (atau dalam hati) lagu kesukaannya yang satu lagu durasinya kurang lebih 20 detik seperti di tulisn yang dikasih dr Laksmi.

Ini karena biasanya Damai cuci tangan sekedarnya. Lumayan, dengan lagu ini jd lebih bersih. Tentu sambil diajari gerakan mencuci tangan yang benar. Kucuri tangan dengan air, matikan kran, ambil sabun, lalu gosok2 telapak tangan, punggung tangan, sela2 jari, pergelangan tangan sambil nyanyi. Begitu lagu selesai, baru dibasuh.

Untuk sabun, bener kata hilda dan risma, sabun cuci tangan biasanya mengklaim anti bakteri. Selama ini sih, di rumah pakai sabun mandi cair biasa :D

Oiya, kalau nggak salah beberapa waktu lalu temen2 peserta pesat 12 Jakarta ada yg sharing soal penggunaan sabun2 anti bakteri ini menurut prof Amin yah (cmiiw). Tp saya nggak nemu emailnya, ada yang bs share lagi kah? Mudah2an sy nggak salah inget

Sisil
@sisilmahadaya

7e.

Re: [Info] Mengenal Penyakit Infeksi

Posted by: "Inta" dini.maesarinta@gmail.com

Thu Nov 10, 2011 5:30 am (PST)



Jadi inget di kantor ada panduan mencuci tangan yang baik dan benar lengkap dengan gambarnya di setiap washtafel dan toiletnya.

Sekarang kalau ngajarin bita cuci tangan pake panduan itu deh. Yang dr dokter laksmi saya langsung save juga nih. Tfs yah dok.

Cheers, Inta-doh masih suka pake sabun cuci tangan antibacterial nih >.<
@Intamardwityo
terkirim dari henponkuh

8.

Re: [share] Mengenal Penyakit Infeksi (Hepatitis)

Posted by: "Laksmi Purwitosari" laksmipurwitosari@yahoo.com   laksmipurwitosari

Thu Nov 10, 2011 4:58 am (PST)



Dear all,
Ada berita KLB Hepatitis A di Jabar,
Jika ingin belajar mengenai hepatitis, silahkan dibaca

http://digestive.niddk.nih.gov/ddiseases/pubs/viralhepatitis/
What is viral hepatitis?
Viral hepatitis is inflammation of the liver caused by a virus. Several different viruses, named the hepatitis A, B, C, D, and E viruses, cause viral hepatitis.
All of these viruses cause acute, or short-term, viral hepatitis. The hepatitis B, C, and D viruses can also cause chronic hepatitis, in which the infection is prolonged, sometimes lifelong. Chronic hepatitis can lead to cirrhosis, liver failure, and liver cancer.
Researchers are looking for other viruses that may cause hepatitis, but none have been identified with certainty. Other viruses that less often affect the liver include cytomegalovirus; Epstein-Barr virus, also called infectious mononucleosis; herpesvirus; parvovirus; and adenovirus.
[Top]
What are the symptoms of viral hepatitis?
Symptoms include
jaundice, which causes a yellowing of the skin and eyes
fatigue
abdominal pain
loss of appetite
nausea
vomiting
diarrhea
low grade fever
headache
However, some people do not have symptoms.
[Top]
Hepatitis A
How is hepatitis A spread?
Hepatitis A is spread primarily through food or water contaminated by feces from an infected person. Rarely, it spreads through contact with infected blood.
Who is at risk for hepatitis A?
People most likely to get hepatitis A are
international travelers, particularly those traveling to developing countries
people who live with or have sex with an infected person
people living in areas where children are not routinely vaccinated against hepatitis A, where outbreaks are more likely
day care children and employees, during outbreaks
men who have sex with men
users of illicit drugs
How can hepatitis A be prevented?
The hepatitis A vaccine offers immunity to adults and children older than age 1. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends routine hepatitis A vaccination for children aged 12 to 23 months and for adults who are at high risk for infection. Treatment with immune globulin can provide short-term immunity to hepatitis A when given before exposure or within 2 weeks of exposure to the virus. Avoiding tap water when traveling internationally and practicing good hygiene and sanitation also help prevent hepatitis A.
What is the treatment for hepatitis A?
Hepatitis A usually resolves on its own over several weeks.
[Top]
Hepatitis B
How is hepatitis B spread?
Hepatitis B is spread through contact with infected blood, through sex with an infected person, and from mother to child during childbirth, whether the delivery is vaginal or via cesarean section.
Who is at risk for hepatitis B?
People most likely to get hepatitis B are
people who live with or have sexual contact with an infected person
men who have sex with men
people who have multiple sex partners
injection drug users
immigrants and children of immigrants from areas with high rates of hepatitis B
infants born to infected mothers
health care workers
hemodialysis patients
people who received a transfusion of blood or blood products before 1987, when better tests to screen blood donors were developed
international travelers
How can hepatitis B be prevented?
The hepatitis B vaccine offers the best protection. All infants and unvaccinated children, adolescents, and at-risk adults should be vaccinated. For people who have not been vaccinated, reducing exposure to the virus can help prevent hepatitis B. Reducing exposure means using latex condoms, which may lower the risk of transmission; not sharing drug needles; and not sharing personal items such as toothbrushes, razors, and nail clippers with an infected person.
What is the treatment for hepatitis B?
Drugs approved for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B include alpha interferon and peginterferon, which slow the replication of the virus in the body and also boost the immune system, and the antiviral drugs lamivudine, adefovir dipivoxil, entecavir, and telbivudine. Other drugs are also being evaluated. Infants born to infected mothers should receive hepatitis B immune globulin and the hepatitis B vaccine within 12 hours of birth to help prevent infection.
People who develop acute hepatitis B are generally not treated with antiviral drugs because, depending on their age at infection, the disease often resolves on its own. Infected newborns are most likely to progress to chronic hepatitis B, but by young adulthood, most people with acute infection recover spontaneously. Severe acute hepatitis B can be treated with an antiviral drug such as lamivudine.
[Top]
Hepatitis C
How is hepatitis C spread?
Hepatitis C is spread primarily through contact with infected blood. Less commonly, it can spread through sexual contact and childbirth.
Who is at risk for hepatitis C?
People most likely to be exposed to the hepatitis C virus are
injection drug users
people who have sex with an infected person
people who have multiple sex partners
health care workers
infants born to infected women
hemodialysis patients
people who received a transfusion of blood or blood products before July 1992, when sensitive tests to screen blood donors for hepatitis C were introduced
people who received clotting factors made before 1987, when methods to manufacture these products were improved
How can hepatitis C be prevented?
There is no vaccine for hepatitis C. The only way to prevent the disease is to reduce the risk of exposure to the virus. Reducing exposure means avoiding behaviors like sharing drug needles or personal items such as toothbrushes, razors, and nail clippers with an infected person.
What is the treatment for hepatitis C?
Chronic hepatitis C is treated with peginterferon together with the antiviral drug ribavirin.
If acute hepatitis C does not resolve on its own within 2 to 3 months, drug treatment is recommended.
[Top]
Hepatitis D
How is hepatitis D spread?
Hepatitis D is spread through contact with infected blood. This disease only occurs at the same time as infection with hepatitis B or in people who are already infected with hepatitis B.
Who is at risk for hepatitis D?
Anyone infected with hepatitis B is at risk for hepatitis D. Injection drug users have the highest risk. Others at risk include
people who live with or have sex with a person infected with hepatitis D
people who received a transfusion of blood or blood products before 1987
How can hepatitis D be prevented?
People not already infected with hepatitis B should receive the hepatitis B vaccine. Other preventive measures include avoiding exposure to infected blood, contaminated needles, and an infected person's personal items such as toothbrushes, razors, and nail clippers.
What is the treatment for hepatitis D?
Chronic hepatitis D is usually treated with pegylated interferon, although other potential treatments are under study.
[Top]
Hepatitis E
How is hepatitis E spread?
Hepatitis E is spread through food or water contaminated by feces from an infected person. This disease is uncommon in the United States.
Who is at risk for hepatitis E?
People most likely to be exposed to the hepatitis E virus are
international travelers, particularly those traveling to developing countries
people living in areas where hepatitis E outbreaks are common
people who live with or have sex with an infected person
How can hepatitis E be prevented?
There is no U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved vaccine for hepatitis E. The only way to prevent the disease is to reduce the risk of exposure to the virus. Reducing risk of exposure means avoiding tap water when traveling internationally and practicing good hygiene and sanitation.
What is the treatment for hepatitis E?
Hepatitis E usually resolves on its own over several weeks to months.
[Top]
Points to Remember
Viral hepatitis is inflammation of the liver caused by the hepatitis A, B, C, D, or E viruses.
Depending on the type of virus, viral hepatitis is spread through contaminated food or water, contact with infected blood, sexual contact with an infected person, or from mother to child during childbirth.
Vaccines offer protection from hepatitis A and hepatitis B.
No vaccines are available for hepatitis C, D, and E. Reducing exposure to the viruses offers the best protection.
Hepatitis A and E usually resolve on their own. Hepatitis B, C, and D can be chronic and serious. Drugs are available to treat chronic hepatitis.
[Top]
What else causes viral hepatitis?
Some cases of viral hepatitis cannot be attributed to the hepatitis A, B, C, D, or E viruses, or even the less common viruses that can infect the liver, such as cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus, herpesvirus, parvovirus, and adenovirus. These cases are called non-Aâ€"E hepatitis. Scientists continue to study the causes of non-Aâ€"E hepatitis.
Salam sehat,
Laksmi Purwitosari

[Non-text portions of this message have been removed]

9a.

Re: [news] Si Miskin Berhadapan dengan Rumah Sakit

Posted by: "Pamelia Yulianto" hidupsehat.pam@gmail.com   pamelia_yulianto

Thu Nov 10, 2011 5:15 am (PST)



Dokter Laskmi,

Bener jg ya dok.. Mmg kurang menjual sih dok kl bikin berita gitu, sama ga menjualnya sama berita 'imunisasi menyelamatkan ribuan anak' dibanding '2 balita meninggal sehabis PIN'

Di negara kita lbh laris yg bombastis n mengharubiru dok. Heroic story? Ke laut aje

- p a m e l i a -
"Stop Judging, Start Supporting"

Powered by my children's existance

9b.

Re: [news] Si Miskin Berhadapan dengan Rumah Sakit

Posted by: "rully875@gmail.com" rully875@gmail.com   rully027

Thu Nov 10, 2011 5:19 am (PST)



Istilahnya bad news is a good news, yah memang begitulah faktanya *sedih*

Rully
Powered by Telkomsel BlackBerry®

-----Original Message-----
From: "Pamelia Yulianto" <hidupsehat.pam@gmail.com>
Sender: sehat@yahoogroups.com
Date: Thu, 10 Nov 2011 13:16:20
To: <sehat@yahoogroups.com>
Reply-To: sehat@yahoogroups.com
Subject: Re: [sehat] Re: [news] Si Miskin Berhadapan dengan Rumah Sakit

Dokter Laskmi,

Bener jg ya dok.. Mmg kurang menjual sih dok kl bikin berita gitu, sama ga menjualnya sama berita 'imunisasi menyelamatkan ribuan anak' dibanding '2 balita meninggal sehabis PIN'

Di negara kita lbh laris yg bombastis n mengharubiru dok. Heroic story? Ke laut aje

- p a m e l i a -
"Stop Judging, Start Supporting"

Powered by my children's existance


[Non-text portions of this message have been removed]

10a.

Info dr. Jose R. Batubara

Posted by: "Bunda Farhan & Athar" radya_cute@yahoo.co.id   icha_grtlo

Thu Nov 10, 2011 5:18 am (PST)



Dear Sps n Doks..
Tlg infonya dimana aj t4 praktek dr. Jose R. Batubara.. Butuh banget nih, dpt rujukan dri Dsa saya ke beliau tpi krn sya tinggal di luar jawa jd cuma disuruh minta info ke RSCM.. Kali aj ad t4 praktek beliau lainnya jd bisa sesuaikan jadwal keberangkatan ke sana

Mksh sblmnya..

Icha



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10b.

Re: Info dr. Jose R. Batubara

Posted by: "Yovita Ananta" yovitaananta@gmail.com   yovita

Thu Nov 10, 2011 5:22 am (PST)



RS hermina jatinegara dan hermina bekasi kalau tdk salah.

SOL
Yovita

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Milis SEHAT mengucapkan terimakasih kepada:
- Asuransi AIA atas partisipasinya sebagai sponsor PESAT Bali 2011
- PT LG Electronics Indonesia atas partisipasinya sebagai Sponsor Tunggal FAMILY FUN DAY MILIS SEHAT 2011.

Terima kasih & penghargaan sedalam-dalamnya kepada : HBTLaw, PT.Intiland, dan PT. Permata Bank Tbk. yang telah dan konsisten mensponsori program kami, PESAT (Program Edukasi Kesehatan Anak Untuk Orang Tua)."

"Milis SEHAT didukung oleh : CBN Net Internet Access &Website.
=================================================================
Milis Sehat thanks to:
- AIA Insurance as sponsor for PESAT Bali 2011
- PT LG Electronics Indonesia as exclusive partner of FAMILY FUN DAY MILIS SEHAT 2011.

Our biggest gratitude to: HBTLaw, PT. Intiland, and PT. Permata Bank Tbk. who have consistently sponsored our program, PESAT (Program Edukasi Kesehatan Anak Untuk Orang Tua)."
"SEHAT mailing list is supported by CBN Net for Internet Access &Website.

Kunjungi kami di (Visit us at):
Official Web : http://milissehat.web.id/
FB           : http://www.facebook.com/pages/Milissehat/131922690207238
Twitter      : @milissehat <http://twitter.com/milissehat/>
==================================================================
Donasi (donation):
Rekening Yayasan Orang Tua Peduli
Bank Mandiri
Cabang Kemang Raya Jakarta
Account Number: 126.000.4634514
==================================================================
MARKETPLACE

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